Author: hkarner

The Digital Gamble: New Technology Transforms Fiscal Policy

By Vitor Gaspar and Geneviève Verdier

April 12, 2018

Traffic in Singapore: the city uses digital technology for road pricing to manage road congestion congestion 

In Rwanda, digitally-monitored drones deliver blood supplies to hospitals. In Estonia, it takes five minutes to file taxes and 99 percent of government services are available online. Singapore was the first city to implement electronic road pricing to manage congestion. The world is becoming digital, and reliable, timely, and accurate information is available at the push of a button. Governments are following suit, using digital tools for tax and expenditure policy, public financial management, and public service delivery. 

With better information, governments can build better systems, as well as design and implement better policies. Our new Fiscal Monitor shows both the opportunities and challenges at play as technology transforms fiscal policy.

Place a bet

The gamble? Going for the digital payoff despite the potential for fraud, breaches of privacy and cybersecurity, and the cost of adopting new technologies.

The innovators have been quick to take advantage of digital tools to facilitate the lives of citizens. Effortless tax season? Check. Kenyans pay taxes on their smart phones; Norwegians have their tax returns prepopulated by their government. Better public services? Done. Indians receive social benefits through electronic transfers to bank accounts linked to their biometric identification.

Countries can now tackle tax evasion with digital solutions. British customs are using big data to detect fraudulent behavior of importers at the border. We estimate that adopting such methods could increase annual indirect tax collection at the border by up to 1-2 percent of GDP.

The Panama and the Paradise papers have exposed the substantial wealth sheltered in low-tax jurisdictions—an average of 10 percent of world GDP. With digital cross-country information exchange about taxpayers comes the prospect of more effectively tracking down this wealth before it is hidden away.

Avoid the gamble?

Why would a government not bet on new technology?

Reasons vary. Citizens don’t trust their government to safeguard their personal information. In the United States, less than a third of people believe the government can keep their digital records secure.

Many poor households lack access to digital tools and could be left behind. Fewer than half of the population of Africa subscribes to a mobile phone.

New fraud opportunities abound: authorities in Korea recently raided the country’s largest cryptocurrency exchanges for alleged tax evasion. Cash-strapped governments with low capacity face greater challenges in managing these risks.

Digital firms are all around

Some challenges are policy related. Firms like Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon are in the public eye but digital firms are all around us. They generate sales with little physical presence. They benefit from value created by users—using apps on our smart phones produces free yet valuable information. Can and should governments tax such value where the consumer resides, even when the firm has its physical home elsewhere?

The sheer scale of digital activities has raised concerns about the fairness of the current allocation of international taxing rights. Some countries—Israel, Italy—have introduced specialized tax measures targeting digital firms but such uncoordinated solutions cannot provide the answer. As the whole economy becomes digital, global solutions are required.

The way forward

People are replacing taxis with Uber, hotels with Airbnb, and cash with PayPal. Can governments stay on the sidelines of such a transformation?

Probably not. Overcoming challenges will require:

  • A proactive and comprehensive reform agenda that addresses political and institutional weaknesses to manage digital risks and ensure inclusion. In India, this meant not only introducing biometric identification to deliver income support to the right beneficiaries, but also reforming the design of the program itself.
  • Adequate resources in the budget . Korea secured budget resources for multi-year plans early on in its digitalization process.
  • International cooperation . In some cases, confronting these challenges calls for international resolve. For example, reducing evasion to low-tax jurisdictions or forming a consensus on the taxation of the digital economy will require multilateral efforts.

Digitalization will not solve all the problems faced by policymakers—it may even create some new ones. But governments can’t lay odds against this trend. Resist at your peril, or embark on a journey to shape the way forward.

“Creativity, Corporatism, and Crowds”

Date: 19-11-2014
Source: Project Syndicate

ROBERT J. SHILLERShiller CC

Robert J. Shiller, a 2013 Nobel laureate in economics.
>Read more about him.

Economic growth, as we learned long ago from the works of economists like MIT’s Robert M. Solow, is largely driven by learning and innovation, not just saving and the accumulation of capital. Ultimately, economic progress depends on creativity. That is why fear of “secular stagnation” in today’s advanced economies has many wondering how creativity can be spurred.

One prominent argument lately has been that what is needed most is Keynesian economic stimulus – for example, deficit spending. After all, people are most creative when they are active, not when they are unemployed.

>Read the article at Project Syndicate

Digital Government: Turning the Rhetoric into Reality

The Most Dangerous Word in Tech

Date: 13-04-2014
Source: The New York Times

The most important word in the technology industry is “innovation.” It is also the most dangerous.

Silicon Valley companies lobby for relief from government regulation and tax so they may innovate profitably. Privacy intrusions by social media or online advertising are seen as a cost of innovating, and a way to learn how these powerful new tools will fit in our lives.

It is not just that “innovation” is a word worn smooth from overuse. We treat innovation like an impersonal force, and a ceaseless outcome of entrepreneurship in tech. If we displace people or distort our culture with innovations that, say, wipe out local bookstores or measure every moment in a warehouse worker’s day, it is the price of a generally beneficial force.

Increasingly, however, economists and social thinkers are challenging the conventional wisdom on innovation. …

Read the rest of the article >here<

 

Making digital government better: An interview with Mike Bracken

Simplify public access to government services and information

March 2014, McKinsey & Co.

Bracken

When it comes to the digital world, governments have traditionally placed political, policy, and system needs ahead of the people who require services. Mike Bracken, the executive director of the United Kingdom’s Government Digital Service, is attempting to reverse that paradigm by empowering citizens—and, in the process, improve the delivery of services and save money. In this video interview, Bracken discusses the philosophy behind the digital transformation of public services in the United Kingdom, some early successes, and next steps. An edited transcript of his remarks follows.

Read the Interview transcript at McKinsey.com

Mike Bracken is the executive director of the United Kingdom’s Government Digital Service, which has sought to simplify access to services and information through a central website, gov.uk.

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