CeDEM14 Sessions

Sessions held at CeDEM14:

  • E-Democracy and E-Participation

  • Open Data, Transparency and Open Innovation

  • Citizens’ Participation in Democratic Governance Processes through ICT in Africa

  • Design and Co-creation for E-democracy

  • Bottom-Up Movements

  • E-Voting

  • Social and Mobile Media for Public Administration

  • Technology and Architecture

  • Rethinking Information Visualization for the People

  • Freedom and Ethics in Digital Societies

  • Open Collaborative Government

Keep on reading for the summaries of the presentations, ppts, etc.!

All the papers are available in the CeDEM14 Proceedings (OA and available online here!)

E-Democracy and E-Participation


Online-comments: Deliberative or Demonstrative Political Participation on the Internet (Norbert Kersting, Tobias Zimmermann)

The authors present different models of demonstrative political participation on the internet.


Developing Citizens’ Observatories for Environmental Monitoring and Citizen Empowerment: Challenges and Future Scenarios (Marcos Engelken-Jorge, Jonatan Moreno, Hans Keune, Wim Verheyden, Alena Bartonova).

Marcos discusses the development and challenge of Citizen Observatories for environmental monitoring. The aim of the Citizen Obersvatories are to empower citizens, raise awareness and inform policy (www.citi-sense.eu).


Refining IT Requirements for Government-Citizen Co-participation Support in Public Service Design and Delivery (Renata Mendes de Araujo, Yehia Taher).  

Renata takes a systems engineering approach to the IT requirements for government and citizen co-participation.


“Hyperlocal E-participation”? Evaluating Online Activity by Scottish Community Councils (Peter Cruickshank, Bruce Ryan, Colin F Smith)

Peter presents an evaluation of community councils in Scotland in their offline and online contexts.


<div style=”margin-bottom:5px”> <strong> <a href=”https://de.slideshare.net/spartakan/scottish-community-councils-for-ce-dem-2014-peter-cruickshank&#8221; title=”Hyperlocal e-participation: Scottish community councils on the internet, for CeDEM 2014″ target=”_blank”>Hyperlocal e-participation: Scottish community councils on the internet, for CeDEM 2014</a> </strong> from <strong><a href=”http://www.slideshare.net/spartakan&#8221; target=”_blank”>Peter Cruickshank</a></strong> </div>


In Search of Quality of eGovernment – A conceptual Discussion on Impartiality in eGovernment (Elin Whilborg, Mariana S. Gustafsson)

Elin  looks at quality of government and governance and how this is affected by adding the „e“.


Open Data, Transparency and Open Innovation


Breaking Public Administrations’ Data Silos: The Case of Open-DAI, and a Comparison between Open Data Platforms (Raimondo Iemma, Michele Osella, Federico Morando)

(Winner of the CeDEM14 Best Paper Award)

Raimundo (University of Turin) presents research based on a comparison of open data software. The issue is representing information in forms that third parties can use it. What are the main features of quality open data platforms? The presenter selected the Open DAI platform, a European project, which is not yet very well known, to present the necessary features. One aim is to reach a seamless flow of information but at the same time avoiding too many steps. Then there are the many features about how data are published. Just as important is the interoperability with other tools and providing dynamic data instead of just static files.

Furthermore, the question as to whether or not data is available in a cloud still remains to be solved. A decision is also necessary as to whether one should be able to gather feedback on data. Raimondo presents the portals that were studied: Open DAI (european), Socrata (us), Ckan (most known) and Engage. The benchmarking presented is based on a comparison of these portals, and one result is that Ckan and Socrata have less sustainability problems. Next steps that need to be considered are for example that public administration could link requirements to meet their own, individual, goals.



Conceptualizing Open Data Ecosystems: A Timeline Analysis of Open Data Development in the UK (Maximilian Heimstädt, Fredric Saunderson, Tom Heath)

Maximilian  (University of Berlin) points out that there are many different definitions: PSI, Open Government Data, Open PS Data, Open 3S Data, Linked Open Data and Linked Data, and this can be quite confusing. Amongst the different definitions there are similar patterns, but the authors of the study began to investigate the evolution of these definitions. Their study presents an overview of how everything started in 2005 with a definition of “open”. It is with  5* Linked Open Data that for the first time,  the question arose as to what is beyond just simply being “open”.

There are other definitions too. McKinsey for example developed another definition. Maximilian also emphasises 2 logics, the digital commons logic (“We are the ones making things and others are just talking”) and the commercial-efficiency logic. The author also focuses on “Hybridity”, a combination of multiple institutional logics. The  Open Data Institute’s approach is compared with the approach found in the Open Knowledge Foundation: whilst ODI fouceses on commercial services as a tool, OKF sees commercial services as necessary condition.



The Tau of Data: A New Metric to Assess the Timeliness of Data in Catalogues (Ulrich Atz)

Ulrich (Open Data Institute) pointed out that the Open Data Institute aims to help people publish more open data as well as helping the demand-side. With his research, he wants to show how open data is successful and gives reasons why governments and companies should be open to more open data. The leadership-team of the Open Data Institute is introduced. He comments on the phrase “Brace yourself – open data winter is coming”. There are many stakeholders, such as the Open Data Index, the OECD and the Open Data Monitor (an EU-project). The question is: Can we have a framework? (so that we can see how they fit together.) The overview shows that there are 2 extremes: on the one hand, there are very detailed case-studies and on the other hand quantitatives studies.

The focus of the present work are  timeliness and  the formulas used to calculate timeliness. The reserach focuses on three case studies, the World Bank (around half of data of the catalogue is up-to-date), data.gov.uk (three quarters of update frequency missing) and the London Datastore (around half of dates up-to-date). He explicitly invites to contact him if you’re working on something similar, would like to try it out yourself or have come across something related.



Creative Commons 4.0 Licenses: A Sui Generis Challenge? (Claudio Artusio, Federico Morando)

Claudio focuses on Open Data and intellectual property rights. Of course, licenses are required. The best option would be not to have copyright at all, but this is not always possible. There are many options of open data licenses: open data commons licenses, creative commons licenses and national open data licenses (for example “Datenlizenz Deutschland”).  Claudio presents the US Non-Profit Organization founded in 2001 which has the ambition to support legal/technical infrastructure to increase digital creativity can increase and explains the different tools necessary for reaching such a goal. He goes into detail concerning the major changes in cc licenses, e.g. the differences betwenn 3.0 and 4.0. Examples of the improvements were the wording and translation without porting. New features were also pointed out, and attention drawnto the sui generis database rights. A legal framework is essential as is the obligation to get express every modification.

He anticipates possible criticisms of the wording: if the license does not have SGDR, does it mean that the obligation does not need to be applied? He concludes by considering the pros and cons of cc 4.0 – an advantage is for example that one single legal text could be used worldwide, whilst a disadvantage is is that a list of cc compatible licenses is still missing



Assessment and Visualization of Metadata Quality for Open Government Data (Nikolay Vassilev Tcholtchev)

Nikolay started his presentation with the setup of data and metadata provision in Germany and focused especially on metadata quality. Quality or specifically the lack of quality can be measured by missing fields, dead links, missing information, bad spelling or non-schema compliance, which results in bad searchability, unrealiabilty , untrustworthiness. Formulas were developed to express metadata quality and 15 portals get automatically analysed in to assess their quality in the mentioned dimensions.

  • Quality is assessed by:
    • number of filled out fields
    • weighted completeness, as not all fields are equally important
    • accuracy of fields, which is perfomed by semantic checking of how much information can be theoretically extracted
    • Richness of information
    • readability using the flesch kincaid reading ease
    • availability: are the links working?

    The system acts as a beacon — if something breaks it will be seen by everyone and those responsible for the data portal will have to react.


The Structural Adoption of Open Data in Governmental Organisations: Technology and Organisation in Practice (Martijn Hartog, Bert Mulder, Bart Spée, Ed Visser, Antoine Gribnau)



The Organization Gap in the Provision of Public Information and Open Data – The Case of the City State of Bremen, Germany (Herbert Kubicek)

Herbert has been working and advising the city of Bremen for 10 years . For many officials in the public administration Open Data is perceived as an issue of milk and honey. Unfortunately, for many the mechanisms of open data are still not obvious which gets obvious by the administration still collecting the low hanging fruits. According to Herbert, no persuasive figures exist which would prove that the release of open data actually increases  transparency and contributes to fight against corruption.

The publication of open data pursues three objectives:

  • Transparency
  • Support of services
  • Research an Education

On a perspective between re-active and proactive release of data, releasing data vs. documents requires very different efforts. Especially data has high or very high efforts to be released pro-actively.

Kubicek presented the time frame of Freedom of Innovation acts on German state and federal level. Bremen has the only FOIA which dictates the pro-active release of government information. Top requests for information in the FOI are in respect to housing (Wohnbaugeld). This is in contrast to the provided open data sets, which include places of public toilets. As a consequence, there is only little overlap between what data sets are provided and what are actually demanded.Concerning organisational aspects, many administrative documents have a shared ownership, which makes effective governance when to open up these documents difficult. To overcome this obstacle, Kubicek presents a recommendation for ordinance: Unambiguous assignment of FOI related requests to departments. The effort to release data instead of documents is expected to be much higher as technical systems are not meant for external access. Another issue of data publication are overlapping legal influence like the IFG (Informationsfreiheitsgesetz), Geodatenzugangsgesetz (triggered by INSPIRE) or statistics law, to name a few.



Elements for the Development of an Open Data Marketplace (Anneke Zuiderwijk)

For open data to become successful it is important to tightly tie the provider and the user together. This need resulted in the concept of the marketplace which was used throughout the ENGAGE project. In ENGAGE, 11 experts from 8 countries were asked about the characteristics of such an open data marketplace which resulted in 9 defining elements of an open data marketplace:

  1. Bring data providers together;
  2. Establish a database with rich metdata: Include the information of who funded the data creation and how it was collected;
  3. Data quality assessment: will also lead to more insights what can be done with the data.  However the mere assessment of usefulness is not enough. Within the ENGAGE project it is possible to rate on specific data quality metrics;
  4. Trust, security and a critical mass;
  5. Have an appropriate revenue model: Possible models mentioned were a Freemium models where higher value services will have to be paid;
  6. Training and support;
  7. Provide technical support: what open data processing tools exist which can help in visualisation, data analysis and data linking;
  8. Full API for machine-to-machine communication, for the data and the metadata;
  9. Target multiple nationalities and languages.


The Politics of Open Government Data (Yimei Zhu)

Yimei presents two existing methods to asses the effectiveness of OGD:

  1. Open Data Index by the OKFN;
  2. The Open Data Barometer

Both methods are complementary and there is an ongoing discussion which of the two methods is more suitable for measuring OGD success. It is very interesting to plot the results of an ODI measurement against an open government barometer. In this respect Kenya is outstanding, as it measures high on the barometer rank, yet quite low on the ODI measure. One reason for this is the relatively low uptake of OGD in this country. A possible reason for this is low data literacy.

Another explanation is to plot the role of government when opening data in respect to the current state of open government in Kenya. The theory has been raised that in order for OGD to be effective, principles of open government must be in place. Collaboration and coooperation are almost guarantees for the success of OGD.



Citizens’ Participation in Democratic Governance Processes through ICT in Africa


Mobile Enhanced Human Rights Reporting – The Case of CHRAGG Tanzania (Wilfred Warioba, Abdallah Ally)

Focusing on Tanzania, Wilfred presented the role of mobile technology regarding Human Rights. Wilfred works for the Tanzanian Commission for Human Rights and Good Governance (CHRAGG), an institution that was designed to:

  • Promote within the country the protection and the preservation of human rights and of duties to the society in accordance with the constitution and laws of the land;
  • Receive and address allegations and complaints on the violation of human rights and contravention of principles of good governance;
  • Conduct research into human rights, administrative justice and good governance issues and educate the public about such issues;
  • Investigate the conduct of any person whom or any institution which discharges functions in excess of authority

A major issue are the ways in which citizens can file complaints with the responsible authority. This is a significant problem, for it is not possible for individuals to visit the relevant offices due to economic and geographical constraints. Written letters can get lost in the mail, fax is often nonexistent and email is not easily accessible. The possible solution is texting via mobile phones – cell phone penetration is more widespread (yet still just around 50%) and allows citizens to complain about violations against human rights and good governance. The system was introduced as accessible and user friendly as possible: No MMS or smartphone technology, just plain texts to a specific number. The number will be the same for all communication, including a confirmation text to the sender of the complaint. At this point, however, the Commission has only conducted awareness campaigns in 7 out of 30 regions, which highlights that many Tanzanians still do not know about the possible use of SMS for human rights issues.

The mobile function, however, is not only to file complaints but also to assure citizens that their complaint has been received. This acknowledgment is important to ensure the continued use of the SMS service. The process after receiving the complaint remains highly bureaucratic, absorbing a lot of time before an investigation can be closed. Further, the awareness of the system as well as the importance of human rights themselves is not widely recognized in Tanzania. Even more important, the government  is the main provider of financial funds but also the biggest human rights violator, creating a severe conflict of interest. This poses a major future challenge: People have to be educated about their rights before they can complain about violations thereof. Additionally, the amount of bureaucracy has to be reduced to create a more effective system.


Citizens’ Advocacy for Public Accountability & Democratic Engagement through ICT Convergence in Eastern Africa (Johnstone Baguma)

Johnstone Baguma presented the experiences of using ICT in promoting participation and government responsiveness. While there is plenty of theoretical evidence about the positive role ICT plays in participation processes, the empirical evidence is still unclear in the case of Africa. A number of interviews – 214 local citizens, 40 ICT intermediaries, 60 politicians – have been interviewed in 7 districts in Uganda.

It turns out that ICT is not an end in itself, but that it depends on the surrounding social, institutional, and cultural environment. In fact, some African countries have legislation that turns out to be counterproductive to the promotion of ICT use. Governments still try to influence public discourse and regulate journalists and similar groups, making information exchange at the most basic level extremely difficult.

An important role is played by grassroots movements that are based on local content and context and have an engaging effect on Uganda’s citizens. Another obstacle is the still existent problem of illiteracy in the most basic sense, a fact that is supported by the rural character (85%) of the country. This makes the inclusion of local content in ICT even more important. ICT is having an effect to bring people together to deliberate issues in a way they did not before. Especially journalists take advantage of this opportunity, creating networks that monitor and observe the government. This interconnection gives people the opportunity to voice their concerns and disseminate it via Facebook, specific platforms, and radio transmissions.

ICT use and distribution is increasing throughout Eastern Africa and plays a central role in making information of political and regional relevance available.  ICT is an an effective tool in reporting human rights violations and government wrongdoings, yet a remaining problem is the high illiteracy rate throughout the population, something that is acerbated by the reliance on English, which is not spoken by everyone. Despite the potential of ICT approaches for democracy in Eastern Africa, the technology and the content have to be shaped more according to the local facts on the ground, especially with regard to the language and accessibility of information communication technology. Another important factor remains the role of the government that has only a limited interest in an informed citizenry – it is a back and forth between opening up and closing down information channels.

Design and Co-creation for E-democracy


The Strategic Value of Design for E-Democracy (Bert Mulder)

Bert Mulder asks the question whether technology and e-democracy can flourish if there is a lack of knowledge what democracy actually is? The changes in thinking about these issues in the context of e-democracy and e-governance will be driven by the intersection of three fields: Democracy, information technology, and design. What Bert Mulder especially emphasizes is the design factor, which he argues is highly innovative, but might lack the insight into the complex world of actual politics. A “design worldview” would have to emerge at some point, for right now designers do not have anything that would qualify as a comprehensive worldview: They are motivated by the problem at hand, without taking the political system itself into account: Are they designing technological solution for liberal democracies or authoritarian regimes?

The design of new system will be heavily technology driven, with potentially only a limited regard to democracy. Designers show a strong ability to create systems, but they lack a “worldview” that takes the realities of the political system into account. What, for example, is democracy in a liberal system compared to participation in a less liberal system. The design has to be  viewed as a process under the inclusion of political considerations distinct from the purely technological viewpoint.

The design worldview should be aware of the larger context of democracy and politics and pursue an approach that includes the citizens as well. For other stakeholders involved in designing democracy solutions it will help when they are aware of the contribution that the material and technological expression add to the experience of democracy. Design for e-democracy requires a new level and quality of critical reflection that needs to be developed alongside the activity of design itself. The design field should identify the new challenges and opportunities of good design for e-democracy at the level of the worldview, the design view, the design process and the possible products. To create awareness of and knowledge and design skills for good quality solutions there should be adequate curriculum to educate designers, clients, and a variety of other stakeholders.

Bottom-Up Movements


Political Participation Frames in a Gay Community (Jakob Svensson).

Jakob looks at popular cultural participation using frame theory and participation frames.




 Just Like Paper – a Baseline for Classifying E-voting Usability (Damien Mac Namara, Paul Gibson, Ken Oakley).

Paul discusses the many errors in voting – so an audit mechanism is necessary, and the paper option may be the best. The aim is therefore to find how best to use the advantages of paper for e-voting.


Five Years of Internet Voting for Swiss Expatriates (Micha Germann, Flurin Conradin, Christoph Wellig, Uwe Serdült).

Since 2008, 3 cantons have ben experimenting with online voting for expatriates, who seem to prefer it than Swiss citizens.


Feasibility Analysis of Various Electronic Voting Systems for Complex Elections (Jurlind Budurushi, Melanie Volkamer).

Jurlind presents complex elections (where ballots can be filled in many different ways) – the problems (error-prone), the feasability of e-voting systems, and possible solutions.

Social and Mobile Media for Public Administration


Improving Responsiveness of Public Services in Housing by Monitoring Social Media Impact (Bojan Cestnik, Alenka Kern)

The sentiment analysis shows that the results on twitter are strongly correlated to the result of the presidential election in 2012 in Slovenia. The difficulty with sentiment analysis is that most of the projects deal with two simple sentiments: positive or negative, but there is expressed a lot more in posts (e.g.irony, sarcasm).  The Housing Fund of the Republic of Slovenia was analyzed to see what the cause for the most of the negative emotions in social media is. As a consequence of the analysis, the Housing Fund organized more frequent and regular press conferences, showing that a more active role is always preferable.



How Do Universities Use Social Media? An Empirical Survey of Italian Academic Institutions (Fiorenza Oppici, Simone Basso, Juan Carlos De Martin)

Their research shows that 7% of the facebook accounts in the Italian universities investigated are managed by special departments for communication on social networks. The majority of the users posts less than daily. The most popular account (absolute) turned out to be EPFL (Swiss Federal School in Lausanne) on facebook and on twitter.



Associating E-Government and E-Participation Indexes With Governmental Twitter Accounts Performance, In EU Countries (Konstantinos Antoniadis, Vasiliki Vrana, Kostas Zafiropoulos)

Government agencies primarily rely on one-way communication – creative dialogs are rare ! A comparative study on EU-countries was carried out using not only the twitter performance indicators proposed in the literature (number of followers, following, tweets, tweets per day) but also using two new indicators: topsy score (the retweets)  and total effective reach (if someone retweets a tweet, then not all of his followers will read this tweet; the total effective reach tries to estimate the number of followers who probably will read the retweet) The UK has 8 governmental twitter accounts, while most countries have 1 to 4.



Technology and Architecture


Exploiting Linked Open Data and Natural Language Processing for Classification of Political Speech (Giuseppe Futia, Federico Cairo, Federico Morando, Luca Leschiutta).

DBedia is a crowd-sourced community effort to extract structured (political) information from wikipedia, the next steps will be to develpe a search/navigation layer as well as integrate wi with other repositories.


Rethinking Information Visualization for the People

The Arts of the Possible Information Visualization in the Field of Politics (Florian Windhager and Michael Smuc, Danube Unviersity Krems)

Visualising political venets is difficult, not necessarily in terms of the technical means but because the field of politics’ reputation.

Florian presents existing visualisation methods as well as common visualisation errors:

  • Maps: using the example of US citizens asked to bulls-eye Crimea;
  • Bubble charts:  Hans Rosling was the  first to define the area of information visualisation;
  • Networks: the website Theyrule.net helps to explore the network of big players within economy;
  • Word clouds: examples were shown which to provide a comparison between word clouds of Austrian politicians and Roland Düringer, a cabaret artist, who is very opinionated about Austrian politicians. Another example included a wordle which highlighted the words used by US presidents from Nixon to Obama.
  • Spider diagrams: as used, for example, in the OECD better life index.

It is important to know your audience, and to consider  motivation mismatch, especially between experts and the casual users.



Isotype Visualizations as a Chance for Participation & Civic Education (Eva Mayr, Günther Schreder, Danube Unviersity Krems)

Visualisation of complex information on maps is not new at all. Otto Neurath was a precursor and among the first to coin the term ISOTYPE (International System of Typographic Picture Education). He laid importance on the understandability of information and used small diagrams and pictograms extensively.

Many types of information can be expressed using ISOTYPES and are included in different diagram types eg. maps. Areas of ISOTYPE application include education and political science. Today’s visualisations, especially those used in political communication, could profit from ISOTYPE vislisations. The pictogram approach was even standardiszed with ISO 7001.

Eva concluded her presentation with the tip that A successful data visualisation knows its audience, sets up a framework and tells as story.



 An Overview of Parliamentary Information Visualization (PIV) Initiatives (Dimitris Gouscos & Aspasia Papaloi)

Aspasia and her colleagues analysed 19 PIVs initiatives in regard to 1. What do they analyse and 2. can they be considered complete. While analysing these PIVs perceived difficulties were that information is often closed and thus had to be scrapped from the web sites.

One results of the research was that each area of parliamentary information would rectify its specific visualisation method. The most provided information is about individual legislators. Criteria to assess PIV completeness were

  • connection
  • disclosure
  • plurality
  • contingency &
  • empowerment


Freedom and Ethics in Digital Societies


A Layered Architecture to Model Digital Citizenship Rights and Opportunities (Andrea Trentini, Fiorella De Cindio)

Andrea and Fiorella presented a model that tries to extend the concepts of democracy and citizenship: For them, it takes place in the realm between the online/digital and the offline/analog spheres. Contrary to the net-optimists, they argue that the internet is a global space that not only extends rights, but also caused some of them to disappear. They call for an increased awareness when it comes to rights in the digital realm. Digital technologies will not necessarily simply enhance democracy, but force us to rethink democracy. Open access and available data do not just inform citizens, it allows them to participate in decision making – they become partners of public authorities in the governing process. But there are, of course, different layers between having access to information and active participation:

Level 0: The Net

Level 1: Access – e.g. vial email

Level 2: Aware Education – knowledge about digital traces and technological aspects of the net but also the role of governments in the net

Level 3: e-services – online services in the public sector

Level 4: Transparency and information

Level 5: Information gathering and dissemination

Level 6:  Be heard and consulted

Level 7: Actively participate

Andrea  illustrated a “rainbow of digital citizenship rights” model aimed a slicing digital citizenship in conceptual levels. The rainbow categorizes a number of communication “channels” between citizens and PAs (from local to global ones), similarly to the ISO-OSI network model. The positive feedback they get proposing the “rainbow” in an university course as well as in several informative events, encouraged them towards a more systematic test: The analysis of the proposals submitted in a public consultation on the fundamental principles of the Internet. Only a few of the proposals fell out of the model: these out-of-model items suggested a couple of improvements to the original characterization of Level 0 and Level1, to take into account “contractual aspects” and “digital identity management.” The framework is now more complete and satisfactory even though still worth of further validations.


Nothing to Hide and to Lose? Being Free on the Internet (Philipp Rössl, Judith Schossböck, Danube University Krems)

Philipp and Judith  ask the fundamental question about freedom on the internet. They argue from a Kantian perspective that the structure of the internet affects us in different ways. The core of their argument comes from the concept of free will and responsibility for our actions as outlined by Kant. They review the ideas of negative and positive freedoms, outlining what limits can be set for the exercise of free will.

The user of the internet has to accept the responsibilities that come with using the internet, while the “providers” of the internet have to make information regarding these responsibilities available. Based on these philosophical framework Judith Schossböck than continued to apply it to the current state of the internet. There is an ongoing debate whether the internet should be entirely free or if there should be limitations. Some countries (China, Russia, etc.) have made that decision for their people with several restrictions on internet usage.

The authors prioritize freedom over security.


Open Collaborative Government


Harnessing the Potential of IT-enabled Collaboration – A Classification for Open Government Collaboration (Jörn von Lucke, Katharina Große)

Jörn  and Katharina presented a multi-layered approach towards collaboration between citizens and governments. The key for collaboration is the agreement on a common goal by those involved. They proposed 8 classifications for Open Government Collaboration:

  • Data Collection – Data (existing datasets, new datasets)
  • Data Transformation – turn data into “information” like maps, graphs, etc…
  • Information
  • Knowledge – Combine existing information with new information like google docs or wikis
  • Crowd-funding – especially for cultural projects
  • Sharing – equipment, infrastructure e.g. car2go

This framework could be a first step towards stronger IT based collaboration.


Through Liquid Democracy to Sustainable Non-Bureaucratic Government (Alois Paulin)

Alois argues for self-managed government via digital technologies. Yet first he asked whether e-government has had any success at all – most likely not, due to a wrong approach by governments. Governments are dominated by bureaucracy and the bureaucratic machine – an important structure of government.

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