Ownership and control over data resources in a virtual scientific collaboratory (Andrea H. Tapia, Bridget Blodgett, Rosalie Ocker, Mary B. Rosson)
This presentation was about a scientific comunity using a rare scanner (from what I understood, there are only four of this one in the world) that produces very high resolution scans. Very few scientists participate, which forms a virtual collaboratory with long distances. All want to use the scanner at the same times, and data should be available to the user, but it’s not. If there is, let’s say, a very rare finding, there would be a 3D image created – but nothing more. The image is stored and can be accessed by staff, but it is not searchable and any copy will take time. This is the time when a virtual collaboratory wants to be born, but the system for it does not exist. The project seeks to create the mechanisms for this collaboratory. At the first stage, interviews amongst stakeholders were done.A big problem is the issue of ownership (does the state own it? the museum? the individual scientist?). When things are virtual, ownerships becomes more important. The main research question therefore was:
How does the virtual nature of the collaboratory impact ownership and control of data resources? Whilst control refers to the flow of information (gate keepers, access, distribution, communication), ownership is the legalistic interpretation of data/sources/publications. 27 interviews (30-75 min) with key project stakeholders were done using the method of analytic induction. Results:
- Virtuality impacts control and ownership of data, but also of the object and research results (these were 3 themes the interviewees came up with).
- The boundaries between digital and physical objects are blurring
- Virtuality demands more formal agreements and protocols; it also adds costs to communication
- At the moment there are no rules and no one is willing to give permission
- There is a weird trust amongst scientists that no one would share something even when they just did it
- Rights to publications are complicated by claims on resuls.
Control and ownership are complicated terms that remain ill-bounded with regards to large-scale scientific collaboratories; there is no process in place to detail roles that control ownership atm. Technology creates new gatekeepers (technocrats) which dictate other members’ roles. A problem can arise when people are doing the same, and there have already been legal battles amongst scientists or universities when they were working on a very rare finding.
Leaders’ presence and performance in the use of intranet social networking services (Michiko Yoshida, Ryuichi Nakamoto, Hiroki Noguchi)
There is a tendency that employees use SNS as a hobby orientated tool, mortality rate is thus very high. The Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications overpraise business SNSs too much, but there is less argumentation on assessment. The paper is about a survey (n=1648) analysing the interdependence of social capital and resource exchange, in particular whether this theory applies to the communication through new ICT tools. The results showed that the usage of the network was not limited to hobby-oriented issues. Managers show legitimacy to their employees over SNSs. Also, company size is a key to benefit from SNSs. The more employees, the more they enjoyed it.
Second Life is not an island (Mitul Shukla, Marc Conrad)
Face 2 face communication in itself is complex, becoming even more complex when it’s mediated by technology. Communications have to be extended or have in-channel adaption. Second Life (SL) as a virtual world is a massivev 3D environment where users are represented by an avatar. The word avatar stems from Hindi mythology and means the representation of an aspect of the divine. SL uses a client-server architecture. There is no plot to follow, and almost everything seen is developed by users. People use Sl as a social space for many reasons. The presented framework is taking various environments into account, like the political, the geographic or user experience. The immediate environment referes to the space where the user is using SL. The user experience consists of cognition and emotion (utilitarian, hedonic, identity). You can join groups in SL by paying a fee or for free. As a mediation and reflection of the real, people behave in the same (or at least similar :)) way than in real. We can also have a real physical reaction to virtual interaction. For this paper, semi-structured interviews were conducted in-world (one-to-one or group interviews in text chat, ending up in 189 response unites with 10 interviewees). Real world identity or demographic questions were not pursued. Apart from this semantic analysis, the “estination guide” was used. Results were about a specific location related to second life. The number of websites coming up in the results is indignitive of a popularity of a location (in SL you can look up how many people have visited that place). To conclude, SL does not exist in an isolated manner but in context of a broader experimential dimension.
Why haven’t people adopted music download stores? (Veikko Haltunnen, Markus Makkonen, Lauri Frank)
Most of the acquired music content comes from free sources (P2P) file sharing networks and ad-supported services. The adoption of paid sources has been relatively slow. This study investigates the reasons why Finnish consumers have not adopted this stores and the dependencies of these reasons with two demographic factors: gender and age. An online survey was conducted in 2010 (gift cards included :)) resulting in 1.447 complete responses. Research questions were: What are the primary reasons why consumers have not adopted music download stores? Are there some additional reasons and do these differ between men and women and different age groups? Respondents were asked to name a primary and secondary reason for not adopting (from a list of 16 pre-defined reasons). There were three main reasons: 1. a physical product is wanted 2. they do not buy music 3. they are used to acquire music elsewhere. Amongst the secondary reasons there was also the assumption of not being able to re-download music. As for gender dependencies, there was no difference in primary reasons, but women more often stated that they’d not possess the necessary skills or knowledge (like eldery people too) whilst men stated more often that the music in download stores included too many restrictions for copying). Young people are more concerned about re-downloading and the prices. Interestingly enough, reasons such as security and privacy concerns did not get much attention in the study. Also, the popularity of physical products can be considered as rather surprising (indicating that complementary rather than substitutory strategies might lead to success in this market segment). The results are generally very similar to those found in prior technology acceptance and adoption studies.
E-city systems: civil infrastructure systems in the e-society (Tamer E. El-Diraby)
Research on the influence of social networks to the design of architecture includes responsive and creative public services. Knowledge-based goods and services attract and retain highly skilled citizens. There are also EU investments in e-city as a vehicle for sustainable and green development. Knowledge can be seen as a social, contextual phenomenon that is distributed and has an ad hoc nature of demand (knowledge as a supply chain model). A new trend in the analysis of knowledge systems is KnowWare (domain specific, semantic middleware). The vision is to have a social web at the core, combined with semantic web and cloud computing in order to create ad hoc knowledge organisations.
I am glad I was able to participate in this conference – presenters were generelly very motivated and interested, there was a good vibe and no problems from the organisational side as well. Hasta la vista!